Climate change: Need to review the US $ 100 billion climate finance commitment to developing countries

The unprecedented increase in climate-related disasters has led more than 13,000 scientists from 153 countries to sign a declaration of climate emergency, according to an article published in September 2021 in a leading biological science journal. The call for such severe action as the declaration of a climate emergency is justified by the Sixth Assessment report (AR6) of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the climatology organization of United Nations (UN) which produces a climate report every seven years or so. The report has been described by British newspaper “The Guardian” as “its most blunt warning yet” of “major climate change that is inevitable and irreversible”. Antonio Guterres, the UN secretary general called the report “a code red for humanity”. The alarm bells are deaf, and the evidence is irrefutable: greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and deforestation are choking our planet and putting billions of people in immediate danger ”. The importance and urgency of addressing climate change is also reflected in 2021. Nobel Prize in Physics which has been awarded to three scientists — Syukuro Manabe from Japan, Klaus Hasselmann from Germany and Giorgio Parasi from Italy— which laid the foundation for current climate models to understand climate change and warned against climate change disasters Climate Change-related disasters include rising sea levels, increasing global warming, arctic melting, devastating floods and cyclones, record heat waves and forest fires. These disasters are believed to be caused by uncontrolled emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG)—- Carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide which, in the earth’s atmosphere, prevent heat from escaping. This is called the greenhouse effect. These gases keep the Earth warm. The increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere caused by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas alter the natural greenhouse effect. These changes cause the atmosphere to trap more heat than before, leading to warming of the Earth. The increase in global average Earth’s surface temperature in 2020 was 1.2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial temperatures. Climate change is real and has been unequivocally brought about by human activities, largely the release of polluting gases from the burning of fossil fuels. The Paris Agreement adopted in 2015 reaffirms the goal of limiting the increase in global temperature to well below 02, preferably 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial temperatures. To prevent warming beyond 1.5 ° C, we need to reduce emissions by 7.6% each year until 2030. According to the Sixth Assessment Report (AR6) of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)2021 published on August 09, 2021, the global warming limit of 1.5 degrees Celsius could be exceeded by 2040. This is because the countries that have been signatories to the Paris Agreement have not kept their promises . The call for a declaration of climate emergency by a large number of scientists in September 2021 is gaining importance as the 26th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP26) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is scheduled from October 31 to November 12, 2021 in Glasgow, Scotland. The COP, the supreme decision-making body of the UNFCCC, has 197 member countries. Each year, a meeting of member countries is organized, known as the Conference of the Parties (COP).

Read also: Integrated Learning / Internship Diploma Program – An Attempt to Improve the Employability of New Graduates

What challenges do developing countries face in achieving the goal of net zero emissions by 2050?

When the world does not add new emissions to the atmosphere, it is called “net emissions”. The United Nations has set a target of halving emissions by 2030 and achieving net zero emissions by 2050 to meet the Paris Agreement target of 1.5 degrees Celsius . The extreme and persistent adverse effects of global climate change have posed a serious threat to both the biosphere and to humanity. But the devastation caused by climate change is greater and more pronounced in developing countries and they are least able to bear the consequences. Multiple factors are responsible for their vulnerability to climate change which can limit their ability to prevent and respond to the devastation caused by it. In 2009, at the Conference of the Parties on Climate Change in Copenhagen, a financial commitment of $ 100 billion per year by 2020 was made by developed countries to help developing countries reduce emissions of gas. greenhouse effect, build resilience to climate impacts and achieve the goal of zero carbon in the future. This target of 100 billion dollars was to be raised before 2025. The modalities of financing from a wide variety of sources – public and private, bilateral and multilateral, and from alternative sources of financing are ill-defined. The proportions of funding from public and private sources are not specified, nor is it clear how different financial instruments such as grants and loans should be counted. They have such serious flaws that developed countries exploit them to their advantage. For example, the bulk of climate finance provided by developed countries to developing countries consists of loans, not grants. Loans must be repaid, with interest. There is no agreed system for measuring the amount of climate change finance provided by developed countries to developing countries. Regarding the commitment to mobilize US $ 100, the fact remains that it was not met. in his “Remarks to the pre-Cop26” on September 30, 2021 in Italy, UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres said developed countries were slow to commit to providing US $ 100 billion a year in funding climate for poor countries by 2020.

India, the biggest emitter of greenhouse gases after the United States and China, is also vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. As part of its commitment to Paris Agreement, India plans to reduce its carbon footprint by 33-35% from its 2005 level by 2030.

It is a known fact that climate change is largely due to the historic emissions of rich developed countries over a long period of a century and a half. Many developing and underdeveloped countries were colonies of rich, developed countries. The colonies contributed significantly to their wealth which enabled them to design and develop technologies which in turn helped them achieve the industrial revolution. The industries mainly obtained the raw material from the colonized countries and sold them the finished products. This has added disproportionately to the wealth of developed countries. After gaining independence, the settlers continued to derive energy from fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas to support their economy. But unfortunately, burning fossil fuels has turned out to contribute to climate change. The UN continues to urge them to reduce the use of fossil fuels and switch to renewable energies. But it is simply not possible for them to quickly switch from fossil fuels to renewables due to financial constraints and lack of technology. At the same time, it is not possible for developed countries to tackle climate change and make the transition to a cleaner, greener future without 152 developing countries representing some 6.5 billion people.

The bottom line is that developed countries have a moral responsibility to review the US $ 100 billion a year commitment to climate finance and increase finance to a sizable level. Given the gravity of the problem of climate change, it is inevitable to help developing countries reduce greenhouse gases. emissions, building resilience to climate impacts so that they meet the goal of net zero carbon and ensure human security in the future. All the loopholes, ambiguities and pitfalls of engagement mentioned above must be eliminated. Recently, India stressed that the goal of achieving zero net emissions by 2050 should be based on the principle of equity.

Hopefully, the COP26 at the UNFCCC scheduled for October-November 2021 in Glosgow would witness significant new commitments to the global climate change agenda.


Through,
Dr Aqueel Khan,
Dr. Aqueel Khan political times
Former teacher and director,
Postgraduate University Education Department of Biochemistry,
RTM Nagpur University,
Nagpur,
Maharashtra
E-mail: [email protected]
Mobile: 9890352898


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Climate change: Need to review the US $ 100 billion climate finance commitment to developing countries

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Climate change-related disasters include rising sea levels, increasing global warming, melting the Arctic, devastating floods and cyclones, record heat waves and forest fires.

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Climate models cannot replicate the slowdown in global warming of the early 2000s – scientists explain why

A recent study led by Dr Wei and Dr Qiao of the First Institute of Oceanography at the Department of Natural Resources provides an assessment of the performance of recently published CMIP6 models to simulate the slowdown in global warming observed in the early 2000s. This study reveals that the key to simulating and predicting short-term temperate change is to separate and properly simulate the two distinct signals i.e. the human-induced long-term warming trend and natural variabilities, in particular interannual, interdecadal and multidecadal ones. Balance. This work has been published online in Science China Earth Sciences.

After unprecedented warming in the last quarter of the 20th century, global surface temperature growth unexpectedly slowed between 1998 and 2013 despite the sharp increase in greenhouse gas emissions; this phenomenon is called hiatus or slowing down of global warming to be more precise. Slowing global warming challenges existing scientific understanding of the mechanisms of global temperature change, so has been one of the most worrying issues in recent climate research and even the public.

Change in rate of warming

Figure 1. Warming rate during rapid warming period (1975 / 01-1997 / 12) (a) and warming gap period (1998 / 01-2013 / 12) (b) and change in warming rate during the period of hiatus from the period of rapid warming (c). All warming rates are derived from 28 simulated global temperature time series (bars) and six observed (vertical lines). Credit: © Science China Press

However, the sophisticated and advanced climate models of CMIP5 could not simulate this slowdown in warming. During the period 1998-2013, the models mainly show a rapid warming surge that deviates considerably from the observed flat temperature time series. The models considerably overestimate the rate of warming observed over the recent period. The IPCC AR5 said: “Almost all historical CMIP5 simulations do not reproduce the recent observed warming gap.” As a result, the ability to simulate and predict sophisticated climate models has been called into question.

Now, CMIP6 model data is gradually released since 2020. Newly developed models include a better understanding of the mechanisms of global temperature change, in particular more reasonable physical processes of natural variability. Successful simulations of the global warming slowdown are expected in next-generation models. As data from 28 new models becomes available, there is a need for a timely review of the ability of CMIP6 models to exhibit the recent slowdown in warming.

Rate of warming of interannual, interdecadal and multidecadal variability

Figure 2. Rate of warming of interannual, interdecadal and multidecadal variabilities (IAV, IDV, MDV) and secular trend (ST) during the period of rapid warming (1975 / 01-1997 / 12, symbols on the left) and the period of hiatus (1998 / 01-2013 / 12, symbols on the right) derived from the 28 time series of simulated global temperatures (orange and green pentagrams) and six observed (red and blue bars). Credit: © Science China Press

Against six widely used global surface temperature datasets, the research team at the First Institute of Oceanography at the Department of Natural Resources are evaluating the performance of the 28 newly released CMIP6 models to simulate the recent slowdown in warming and find that the Most CMIP6 models still fail to reproduce. slower warming, although they show encouraging improvements over the CMIP5 models (Figure 1).

In addition, they explored possible reasons for the difficulty of CMIP6 models in simulating the recent slowdown in warming. They reveal that it is associated with model shortcomings in simulating temperature change signals distinct from the long-term human-induced warming trend and / or the three crucial natural variabilities at interannual, interdecadal and multidecadal scales ( Figure 2).

This study reveals that the key to simulating and predicting short-term temperate change is to separate and properly simulate the two distinct signals, i.e. the human-induced long-term warming trend and variability. natural, in particular those at interannual, interdecadal and multidecadal scales. . This suggests that key-scale variabilities require more attention in models, given their vital roles in modulating the change in the rate of warming at decadal to multi-decadal scales. This result can provide important information for simulating and predicting short-term climate change.

Reference: “Could CMIP6 climate models reproduce the slowdown in global warming of the early 2000s?” by Meng Wei, Qi Shu, Zhenya Song, Yajuan Song, Xiaodan Yang, Yongqing Guo, Xinfang Li and Fangli Qiao, April 15, 2021, Science China Earth Sciences.
DOI: 10.1007 / s11430-020-9740-3

This research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41806043 and 41821004).


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GP warning on climate change

A DOCTOR from Henley says people’s health will suffer and there will be more disease unless stronger action is taken to tackle climate change.

York Road Hart Surgery partner Philip Unwin said it would put increased pressure on the local health system, at which point the situation would be irreversible.

He said: “It takes a big change in government policy to make a difference.”

Dr Unwin is the latest city figure to speak out in favor of the Climate and Environmental Emergencies Bill, due for second reading in the House of Commons later this month .

He said: “You hope it doesn’t affect your life, but I think we’re almost getting to the point where we need to do something to make a difference.

“It’s very difficult for some people, but if everyone did something it would be a lot easier.

“Obviously this affects countries where there is extreme weather conditions. These are people who are struggling because of crop failure and famine. Global warming affects the poorest people.

“If we look at Henley, we see more flooding and extreme weather conditions, but nothing that particularly affects our health. We are relatively well protected.

“By the time we, in our very privileged and protected situation, begin to feel the effects of climate change on health, it will have gone too far and will be irreversible.

“We had a crisis with covid and the whole country came to a standstill, but climate change is a much bigger problem. It is not yet high enough on the political and social agenda.

Zero Hour Oxfordshire, formerly CEE Bill Alliance Oxfordshire, is promoting the private member’s bill, but Henley MP John Howell declined to support it.

He believes the proposed legislation is flawed and says the government has already put in place targets to achieve net zero carbon and reverse the impact on nature.

Supporters say the bill “provides a framework for the decarbonization of the UK economy” and makes it a legal obligation for the government to commit to measures that limit the temperature rise to 1.5 degree above pre-industrial levels.

Last month, the editors of 200 health journals around the world issued an emergency call for action.

Dr Unwin, who has worked at Hart Surgery for over 30 years, says the link between climate change and health should not be underestimated.

He said: “There is no doubt that if the current climate trend continues, we will see an increase in disease patterns and health conditions directly related to the climate and ecological emergency with resulting pressures on our healthcare system. here in Oxfordshire.

“I am not an expert on climate change, but I am convinced that we should do whatever we can. It takes a big change in government policy to make a difference and achieving the goals they set is going to be really tough.

“Henley trying hard could be a good role model for other cities to follow and I think we should do as much as possible.

“I stopped a lot of the waste we had at home. I drive an electric car and make every effort not to use fuel unnecessarily.

Other local supporters of the bill include Brakspear CEO Tom Davies, Bremont co-founder Nick English, Ella’s Kitchen founder Paul Lindley, naturalist Professor Richard Fortey and broadcaster Ben Fogle, who lives to Fawley.

• What do you think? Write to: Letters, Henley Standard, Caxton House, 1 Station Road, Henley or by email
@ henleystandard.co.uk


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Tim Flannery “confirmed” unresponsive to criticism of climate change

TF: No, I saw it coming. And besides, who is still there? I am, and the Climate Council continues, it’s just privately funded. And I don’t know where Tony Abbott is. Taiwan, or somewhere, yes?

Independent MP Zali Steggall won Tony Abbott’s Warringah.Credit:Alex Ellinghausen

Fitz: Where are your energies going now?

TF: Also at the Climate Council, to give advice on how to tackle the challenges we face; develop new champions of activism, influencing people who can make changes to do so. I work a lot with the Voices movement, I hope to help develop independents like Zali Steggall. I’m also trying to help in Melanesia, protecting the remaining rainforests and biodiversity in places like the Solomons, New Guinea and West Papua. And I’m going to the climate change conference in Glasgow soon.

Fitz: What will Glasgow achieve?

TF: Ideally, put the world on the same page. And it’s never been so open, with a lot to discuss that hasn’t been settled before. But there is a lot going on. Most people around the world now feel an urgent need for a change, which is helping, and the fact that clean energy is cheaper than ever and getting cheaper is also important.

Video by Gina Rinehart for St Hilda Anglican School.

Video by Gina Rinehart for St Hilda Anglican School.

Fitz: Do you believe that the federal government has really found religion when it comes to taking action on climate change, with more and more parliamentarians beating the drums, or is it quite a set-up?

TF: There are certain elements in government who know that it is absolutely vital that they change, for the country, for the planet. and to win the next election. And the electorate has changed. They all saw what happened when Warringah changed, but Tony Abbott didn’t. And I think even Scott Morrison understands now. I think he learned a lesson from the bushfires. We had been trying to reach him for months before, warning him of what was to come. Then when they happened he went to Hawaii and the electorate reacted accordingly. There was a lesson in that.

Fitz: This week, footage of Gina Rinehart told her old school to do their own research and ignore the nonsense about climate change. Do you ever throw a shoe on the TV when stuff like that comes out?

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TF: No, I am beyond that. I think, “poor Gina”. Twiggy Forrest is getting it now too and will make her next billion by embracing the green economy, and she will miss it.

Fitz: Sir David Attenborough once described you as being “in the league of all-time great explorers like Dr David Livingstone” for your work in documenting some of Australia’s earliest wildlife. Are you desperate that our people continue to neglect to preserve and care for the wildlife we ​​have?

TF: I’m quite upset, especially when I see the clearing going on in New South Wales and Queensland. They don’t realize that in addition to destroying biodiversity, they are destroying their future prosperity.

Fitz: Your last words to the crowd for this interview?

TF: It is not too late. Let’s develop some great new policies, embracing clean energy and protecting what we still have. It is not too late, but we must act.

Back in your box

While here in Australia the number of our anti-vaccines is seriously decreasing as their position becomes more and more tragically absurd, alas, the same cannot be said in the United States. Here is the scene on Hollywood Boulevard last Saturday morning, as the anti-vaccination protest unfolded.

Woman on loudspeaker: “Do you see all these homeless people around. Did they die on the streets with COVID? Surely not. Why?”

Homeless person (passerby): “Because I’m vaccinated, you idiot!” “

Don’t party like it’s 2019

As for Prime Minister Dominic Perrottet’s plan to remove some of the speeding signs on our road map to recovery, I’m as excited as everyone. But doesn’t the Victorian experience offer a warning? They were beating 900 new COVID-19 infections a day, until the AFL grand finale. Just one night of underground parties as people gathered to watch the game together and five days later, like clockwork, they increased by 500 cases and have not recovered since. Yes, we have a higher vaccination rate than they do, but if just one night of a few thousand covert gatherings can cause this level of damage, don’t we risk a similar increase if we resume normal activities too early?

joke of the week

The swinging doors of the Last Chance Saloon snapped open and the sheriff stepped forward, as the whole bar fell silent. “I’m watching,” the sheriff announces aloud, “iron the Brown-Paper Cowboy. “

“Did he look like, sheriff?” Asks the bartender.

“Waaaal, he has a big old brown paper hat for her, wears brown paper shirts, brown paper pants, and brown paper boots.” He has him a brown paper pistol that shoots brown paper bullets and he rides it with a big old brown paper hose.

“Waaaal, sheriff,” replies the bartender, “I can’t say we’ve rightly seen him in these areas, but we’ll definitely be keeping an eye on him. Saaaay, what do you want him to do anyway? ‘

“Rust.”

Tweet of the week

“Save Australia !!! We are held captive here by universal healthcare, no guns, abundant sunshine, and low covid rates. To help!!!” Journalist @Paul_Karp in response to the bizarre US protest outside the Australian Consulate in New York, calling on people to ‘save Australia’ from punitive responses to COVID-19.

Quote of the week

“If he kicks a cat, he’ll be back in jail.” – Police Minister David Elliott trying to assure the public that infamous rapist Mohammad Skaf, released on parole this week after nearly 21 years in prison, will be under full outside surveillance.

What they said

“I always said I would give people a choice. They chose with strength. Democracy is winning today, Dominic Perrottet will be a magnificent Prime Minister. – Rob Stokes is doing well after losing 39-5 in the last Premiership game of the season against Dominic Perrottet.

“Today begins a new chapter for NSW. We are going to take our status from good to excellent. – New Prime Minister Dominic Perrottet on the day of his ascension.

“It’s certainly not a model that we ever consider at the federal level, all of which has been on display for quite some time. You have to have processes that assume people are innocent before they are considered guilty. “ – Prime Minister Scott Morrison on the possibilities of an independent federal commission against corruption. The ICAC has not commented on guilt or innocence. He simply announced that he was investigating the Prime Minister.

“It’s not the fair grand process, it’s a bit like the Spanish Inquisition. We elect politicians, not bureaucrats. People should be the final arbiter. Bureaucracy reigns supreme here and politicians are fundamentally terrified of doing their jobs. – Barnaby Joyce on the NSW ICAC.

“The ICAC has almost certainly done exactly what the usual system requires, which is that there is first a detailed private investigation behind closed doors, before deciding to call a public inquiry; the Prime Minister has been advised of the matters he plans to investigate; they seem to be very suitable subjects for the investigation. Now, calling it the Spanish Inquisition is really just a very silly comment. – Former Senior Justice Stephen Charles, who sat on the bench of Victoria’s highest court for over a decade and is now a prominent voice advocating for the Commonwealth to create a federal anti-corruption commission with powers similar to those of the NSW ICAC.

“We will stop at nothing to ensure that we have more rapists behind bars and that we are more successful in prosecutions for rape and sexual violence. Because, I think, it’s bad. – British Prime Minister Boris Johnson speaks.

“We are not average surfers; we are not 19 with legs that are two meters long … we are a fun loving group of older women who have raised more money than any other team including the ‘Billabong team. Everyone lost a lot of connections during the lockdown, and so did we, but we have forged a very strong relationship because of it. The challenge of surfing every day was sometimes difficult, but our fellowship made it possible. – Mona La Cour, Coordinator of the Surfie Chicks Eastern Suburbs group, which raised over $ 33,000 to support the Surf Aid charity by surfing for 30 consecutive days in September.

“The goal is to speed up Australia’s COVID-19 vaccination program in a safe manner throughout October. The sooner we achieve higher nationwide immunization rates, above 80 percent, the sooner we can all safely resume our full range of community and business activities. The point of promotion is not to convince people to get vaccinated. This is a decision you should make in consultation with a healthcare professional. – Craig Winkler, co-founder of software company MYOB and a member of the Million Dollar Vax Alliance, a group of philanthropists and businesses that hopes to push national immunization rates above 80%, announcing an award of $ 1 million offered to Australians who get both jabs by mid-December.

“Her [Gladys Berejiklian’s] death, honestly, I felt bad when I saw this. I was not prepared to continue in the cabinet. I had always had a little ambition to become federal and I never entered the right space, at the right time, I guess. I was sitting on an 80-20 decision and then I really saw that I had to move on. ” – NSW Transport Minister Andrew Constance said he left state parliament for a tilt in federal politics at Gilmore’s seat in the 2022 election. Doesn’t he look excited and ungrammatical.

“I often hear about psychic mediums … and I wonder if they exist big and small.” – @steve_arama

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Climate change: can cap and trade be the solution to Delhi’s pollution problem?

It cannot be denied that climate change has emerged as one of the most pressing issues of the day, with experts worrying about the future of the world as we move forward at this rate. In its publication of the Fifth Assessment Report in 2013, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change of 1,300 independent scientists from around the world concluded that there is a greater than a 95% chance that human activity at over the past 50 years has warmed the planet. They attribute the main causes of warming to greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels such as petroleum (petroleum), natural gas and coal.

Other sources of greenhouse gases come from deforestation, changes in land use, soil erosion, agriculture and livestock (IPCC, 2013). When greenhouse gases are released, they heat the atmosphere. Well, the impact of global warming has been shared around the world, and therefore, must be action against it. According to data published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), “changes in temperature and precipitation, rising ocean temperatures, sea levels and acidity, melting glaciers and sea ​​ice, changes in the frequency, intensity and duration of extreme weather conditions. events, changes in ecosystem characteristics, such as the length of the growing season, the timing of flower blooming and bird migration, and increasing negative effects on human health and well-being. (EPA, 2017).

The majority of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions come from energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions. The International Energy Agency (IEA) cites that 80% of global energy consumption is based on fossil fuels. In 2016, 56% of US carbon emissions came from transportation and electricity.

Likewise, in 2015, 58% of California’s carbon emissions came from transportation and electricity. In the United States, the main source of carbon emissions in the energy sector is coal. According to a 2015 report from the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), total CO2 emissions from US coal-fired electric power were 1,364 million metric tons. In contrast, CO2 emissions from natural gas and petroleum were 530 million metric tonnes and 24 million metric tonnes, respectively.

As can be seen from the archives of the past, global market agencies prefer energy produced by fossil fuels. In the electricity sector, global fossil fuel subsidies are around $ 100 billion per year, while global subsidies for renewable forms of electricity are around $ 30 billion per year (Kitson , Wooders and Moerenhout, 2011). Shifting to a low-carbon future will require reducing these massive fossil fuel subsidies. Although this subject has been raised repeatedly in various fora for a long time, its implementation has been more difficult to achieve.

According to the 2016 World Health Organization report, Delhi is one of the most polluted cities in the world and has maintained its position in the list for a very long time. Among the 11 mega-cities in the world with more than 14 million inhabitants, Delhi has the highest levels of suspended particles (PM 10). This makes Delhi’s air virtually unbreathable, resulting in the death of around 10,000 residents annually due to rising pollution levels. (Talking tree, 2015).

According to a report published by Dr Pradhan in India Today in 2015, an inhabitant of Delhi is exposed to an average of 153 micrograms per cubic meter of PM 2.5. To put this statistic into perspective, consider that it is fifteen times the limit recommended by the WHO. Also note that PM 2.5 is considered the most harmful of all measurable particles.

However, none of these figures are new or unprecedented, as the pollution problem in Delhi has been understood and analyzed by policy makers and experts for some time now. What is new, however, is the political response to this problem.

The main causes of particulate matter, PM 2.5 and PM 10, in India are vehicle emissions and industrial processes. Other pollutants emitted by these two elements include CO, NOx, SO2, etc. Following the Delhi High Court’s remark that living in Delhi is equivalent to living in a gas chamber, the Delhi government imposed the odd-even policy in 2016. This policy was introduced in an attempt to mitigate pollution caused by congestion. Delhi roads.

Even if the impact of this policy is rather questionable, the purpose of its discussion is to highlight the fact that it is the only explicit political action aimed at directly combating pollutants. According to the 2019 Delhi State Action Plan report, some policy actions in the transport and vehicle sector have been proposed to control the pollution emitted by vehicles. However, any tangible impact has yet to be assessed. Most policies of the Delhi Pollution Control Committee include tackling polluted areas and sources of pollution, but not directly tackling pollutants.

The purpose of discussing these key strategies for improving the city’s air quality is to show what precisely these policies lack in action at the industrial level. Industrial exhaust fumes add major pollutants to Delhi’s air and easily count as a major source of pollution in the state.

Therefore, the idea behind the proposed document revolves around this: to directly control pollutants emitted by industries. Most of the existing actions in this regard include only the establishment of certain standards.

Areas like Okhla, Wazirpur, Jahangirpuri, Narela, Badarpur, Mundka and Mayapuri are called the toxic hubs of Delhi. Another thing common to all of these places, however, is that they are all industrial hotspots in the state. The correlation is obvious, and that’s exactly what we can use to our advantage.

The idea of ​​the proposed political action includes the establishment of a cap-and-trade market in these industrial regions.

Cap-and-trade model

Climate change and its impacts threaten the very existence of life on earth, as scientists and experts have repeatedly explained. Regardless of the challenges that lie ahead in terms of the required change and implementation, it is imperative that we continue to do our best to mitigate the effects of climate change and put our world on a more sustainable path.

The cap-and-trade system is a market-based tool that tackles climate pollution and creates income to invest in a clean energy future. The United States has a history of inaction at the federal level on climate change issues, but the world cannot afford to wait for federal legislation. The problem of climate change has grown considerably in the past and will continue to worsen if each authority is not aware of its responsibility. Therefore, sitting down for the Center to take action would get us nowhere, it is important that States take action and take responsibility for the next step.

A cap is a restriction on the amount of pollution that can be emitted by all businesses in a particular region. This level is then broken down into allocations, according to different industries and scale of operations. This allowance is then purchased or obtained in the form of a license from the state government (or regulatory body).

The trade then occurs by a company to pollute beyond a certain limit, of another company which is ready to give up part of its said limit, for a price. This price is set according to a microeconomic analysis of the will (based on investment and operating expenses) and an econometric analysis of the economic relationship at the industry level between production and pollution.

Why cap and trade?

Two main reasons make this market-based tool an impressive strategy:

First, it tackles climate pollution through direct control of pollutants, and its implementation is state-based. Second, it generates income to invest more in political actions aimed at improving the state’s pollution conditions.

days of poor air quality in delhi could start on Sunday |  city ​​news, Indian express

The global precedents of Cap-And-Trade-

The cap and trade program was originally introduced in California’s Global Warming Solutions Act (AB 32) 2006. The program was extended until 2030 in 2017, due to its success during its first decade. It has since been adopted in various countries such as Australia, New Zealand, the European Union, South Korea and Quebec.

Action plan for adoption in Delhi

If you look at the list of countries above, you will only see developed countries, mainly due to the nature of the political action required to implement the model. For Delhi, however, the advantage is that most industries are concentrated in specific regions and are mostly homogeneous in raw materials. This may allow for a more defined adoption of the model, depending on regional requirements.

The studies carried out by the Delhi Pollution Control Board specify the pollution emitted by different regions, which means that the establishment of an exogenous ceiling can be specific to the industry since the industrial concentration by zone is mainly homogeneous in Delhi.

Note also that the success of such a program depends on the way in which the exchanges take place between the companies. A key determinant in this regard, according to examples from different studies, depends on differences in operating scale, availability of capital and operating costs. Although more definitive information on this subject would require further analysis, a report published by O Saigal explicitly explains this difference.

Of course, a number of endogenous considerations would be necessary to inculcate during the modeling, the available data and the aforementioned parameters explain that this can be done. Appropriate planning and policy formation can do just that.


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Google bans ads by opponents of the consensus on climate change • The Register

Google has decided not to run any advertising alongside content that “contradicts the well-established scientific consensus on the existence and causes of climate change”.

The decision impacts YouTube, advertisers and publishers. It appears to be primarily a matter of commerce rather than conscience: the adtech strangler has touted the move as a change in its advertising and monetization policy.

“In recent years, we’ve heard directly from a growing number of our advertising partners and publishers who have expressed concerns about ads running alongside or promoting inaccurate claims about climate change,” the Google missive read. “Advertisers just don’t want their ads to appear alongside this content. And publishers and creators don’t want ads promoting these claims to appear on their pages or videos.”

Hence the new policy, which will ban ads appearing on content that suggests climate change is a hoax, scam or denies that human activity contributes to it. Ads suggesting any of the above will also be prohibited.

Google says it “will carefully consider the context in which the claims are made, distinguishing between content that states a false claim as a fact, versus content that reports or discusses that claim.

“We will also continue to allow advertising and monetization on other climate-related topics, including public debates on climate policy, the varying impacts of climate change, new research and more.”

Google said it had “consulted authoritative sources on the subject of climate science, including experts who contributed to the assessment reports of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change” for the help define its policies.

Their recommendations will be implemented using “a combination of automated tools and human review” to assess content and ads.

But Google hasn’t explained how the review process will work.

The register expects it to need it, and quickly, as the reaction to the change we’ve seen on social media has already criticized Google’s position as another example of Big Tech effectively becoming the arbiter of a acceptable public discourse.

Here is another point of view.

Others have pointed out that Google has been enjoying this content for years.

It is also easy to find a favorable sentiment for change.

One thing is certain: this change will trigger weeks of culture warfare arguments that will bring a lot of heat but very little light and hardly change their minds. ®



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Climate Cast: University of Minnesota researchers use AI to improve climate models

Climate models all agree that the Earth will warm considerably this century. But predicting the precise magnitude of warming tells a lot more to climatologists about future extreme weather events and sea level rise.

Now researchers at the University of Minnesota Twin Cities are part of a new $ 25 million climate modeling center funded by the US National Science Foundation. Their mission: to use big data and artificial intelligence to create more accurate climate models that help us prepare for the inevitable disruptions to come.

“If you live in New York, should we build a sea wall and how high should it be?” If you live in California and Texas, what are the projections for water availability? Maybe we will have to choose different cultures [there]”said computer and engineering professor Vipin Kumar who is part of the team at UM’s new climate modeling center.

“There are a whole bunch of planning decisions people are going to have to make, and being able to understand what’s going to happen with climate change is extremely important,” he said.

To learn more about Kumar, click read on the audio player above or subscribe to the Climate Cast podcast on Apple podcasts, Google Podcasts, Spotify, Where RSS.

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MakerDAO Founder’s Plans to Fight Climate Change and Return to ETH

MakerDAO founder Rune Christensen published an essay outlining steps that could be taken to make the protocol a vehicle for tackling climate change.

In a lengthy article published Oct. 5 on the MakerDAO Governance Forum, Christensen asserts that MakerDAO should strive to ensure that all of its guarantees include “sustainable, climate-aligned assets that take into account the long-term impacts of financial activity on the environment ”.

Christensen says the protocol collateral should be invested in real-world sustainable assets (RWAs) through senior credit positions in projects that build “solar farms, wind turbines, batteries, recharging stations and ‘other cost-effective renewable energy solutions, along with their supply chains, sustainable resource extraction and recycling. He further stated:

“Today we already have everything we need to start expanding our RWA exposure to hundreds of billions of US dollars and beyond, safely and in full compliance with financial regulations, using the model. of real-world assets based on the fiduciary that the community has developed over many years. “

Related: MakerDAO To Dissolve Foundation And Become Truly Decentralized Again

Christensen also expresses the need for MakerDAO to restore its commitment to a decentralized guarantee, advocating that the protocol again relies on the Ethereum network and the Ether token.

MakerDAO users deposit crypto assets into the protocol to secure the minting of the Dai stablecoin (DAI). While Ether was initially exclusively supported by the protocol, it has since expanded to support other assets, including USD Coin, Wrapped Bitcoin, and Basic Attention Token.

The Maker founder highlighted the improvement in environmental efficiency expected to be achieved through Ethereum’s transition to a proof-of-stake consensus with Eth2, saying:

“Once the upgrade from proof of work to proof of stake is completed, Ethereum will become a high energy efficiency blockchain. ETH will become a lasting competitor to Bitcoin’s current role as the leading cryptocurrency. “


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Google adds a search page dedicated to “climate change”

In addition to new features for Maps, Nest thermostats and flights, Google will be posting more information on how to make sustainable choices in research, shopping and finance. This includes a Google search results page dedicated to “climate change” and research into ineffective traffic lights.

Google will add a dedicated ‘climate change’ results page later this month. The “Overview” (with 10 blue links) and “News” tabs work the same, but “Causes”, “Effects” and “Take Action” are taken directly from United Nations data.

The search also makes it easier to find electric vehicles and other green vehicles. Google notes that interest in electric vehicles, as well as charging stations, has “never been higher”. The company will showcase climate-conscious models and allow users to compare models while helping users understand the benefits of electric vehicles.

There will be green tags for “Electric” and “Hybrid plug-in”, with results having a “Loading” tab. This notes the time it will take to refuel and the stations near you, as well as an “Annual Energy Cost Estimate” tool which allows you to “modify the parameters” and compare them to a vehicle. gasoline.

Meanwhile, Google Shopping will offer more cost-effective and sustainable alternatives when searching for power-hungry devices in the United States. This includes furnaces, dishwashers, water heaters, ranges and dryers.

Google Finance extends its sustainability score (from the Climate Disclosure Project) to your entire tracked portfolio. This will assess the sustainability of your investments and is currently “soon”.

Finally, Google today shared research on improving the efficiency of traffic lights to reduce idling time. This means less wasted fuel and less air pollution at street level. Optimizing, Israel’s early observations showed a 10-20% reduction in fuel delays and intersections. The company is currently piloting this effort in Rio de Janeiro and hopes to expand it to other cities.

So instead of manually measuring and calculating times, one of our AI research groups found a way to accurately calculate the traffic conditions and times at most intersections in cities around the world. , then they train a model on that data to optimize these inefficient intersections.

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How Climate Models Got So Accurate They Won A Nobel Prize

Climate modellers have a moment.

Last month, Time magazine listed two – Friederike Otto and Geert Jan van Oldenborg of the World Weather Attribution Project – among the 100 Most Influential People of 2021. Two weeks ago, Katharine Hayhoe of Texas Tech University was a guest on the popular talk show CBS Jimmy Kimmel Live! And on Tuesday, climate modeling pioneers Syukuro Manabe and Klaus Hasselman shared the Nobel Prize in physics with theoretical physicist Giorgio Parisi – recognition, said Thors Hans Hansson, chairman of the Nobel Committee in Physics, that “our knowledge of climate rests on a solid scientific basis, based on a rigorous analysis of the observations.

Climate modelers are experts in Earth or planetary sciences, often with background in applied physics, mathematics, or computer science, who use physics and chemistry to create equations, feed them into supercomputers, and apply them to simulate the climate of Earth or other planets. Models have long been viewed by climate change deniers as the soft underbelly of climate science. Being necessarily predictive, they were considered to be essentially unverifiable and the result of erroneous entries producing unreliable results.

A 1990 National Geographic The article put it this way: “Critics say modeling is in its infancy and cannot even reproduce the details of our current climate. The modelers agree and note that the predictions necessarily fluctuate with each refinement of the model.

However, more recent analyzes, dating back decades, have found that many of the early models were remarkably accurate in their predictions of global temperature increases. Now, as computing power increases and more and more refinements are added to modeling inputs, modelers are more confident in defending their work. As a result, says Dana Nuccitelli, author of Climatology versus pseudoscience: exposing the unsuccessful predictions of global warming skeptics, “There has certainly been a change from outright denial of climate science; because the predictions turned out to be so accurate, it becomes harder and harder to deny the science at this point. “

This 1990 article quoted Manabe – widely regarded as the father of modern climate modeling – as saying that, in some of the early models, “all kinds of crazy things happened … sea ice covered tropical oceans, for example.” But in a seminal 1970 article, the first to make a specific projection of future warming, Manabe argued that global temperatures would increase by 0.57 degrees Celsius (1.03 degrees Fahrenheit) between 1970 and 2000. The actual warming recorded was remarkably close to 0.54 ° C. (0.97 ° F).

A 2019 article by Zeke Hausfather of the University of California at Berkeley, Henri Drake and Tristan Abbott of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Gavin Schmidt of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies analyzed 17 models dating from the 1970s and found that 14 accurately predicted the relationship between global temperatures as greenhouse gases increased. (The estimates of two were too high and one was too low.) That’s because fundamental physics has always been strong, says Dana Nuccitelli, research coordinator at the Citizens’ Climate Lobby. and author of Climatology versus pseudoscience: exposing the unsuccessful predictions of global warming skeptics.

“We’ve understood for decades the basic science that if you put a certain amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, we’ll get some warming,” he says. “These forecasts in the 1970s were remarkably accurate, but they also used fairly simplified climate models, in part because of our level of understanding of climate systems, but also because of computational limitations at the time. It is certainly true that climate models have come a long way.

The more things change …

In the realm of climate modeling, “What hasn’t changed over the years is the overall assessment of the extent of global warming as we increase CO2,” says Hayhoe, who is also Chief Scientist for Nature Conservancy and author of Saving Us: A Climate Scientist’s Case for Hope and Healing in a Divided World. “What has changed is our understanding at increasingly smaller spatial and temporal scales. Our understanding of feedbacks in the climate system, our understanding, for example, of the real sensitivity of the Arctic. “

As this understanding has grown, she says, it has enabled the development of what she calls “the cutting edge of climate science today” – the attribution of individual events, the specialty for which Otto and van Oldenberg were recognized in Time, which for the first time is able to establish strong links between climate change and specific weather events, such as heat waves in the western United States or the amount of rain deposited by Hurricane Harvey.

“We couldn’t do this without models,” says Hayhoe, “because we need the models to simulate a world without people. And we have to compare an Earth without people to the Earth we live on with humans and carbon emissions. And when we compare these two Earths, we can see how human-induced climate change has altered the duration, intensity, and even damage associated with a specific event.

In Hayhoe’s case, the actual act of modeling is “looking at thousands of lines of code, and it’s so intense that I often do it at night, when people aren’t emailing and that the lights are out and that I can focus on that bright screen. in a dark room. Then I blink and it’s suddenly half past four in the morning.

Much of the work, she says, involves trying to find things wrong with the models, to make sure they reflect reality. “If it doesn’t quite fit, we have to look more carefully because there is something that we didn’t quite understand. “

While such deviations can be flaws in the models, they can sometimes reflect errors in the observations. For example, a series of studies in 2005 found that satellite data which appeared to show no warming in the lower atmosphere, or the troposphere, and which was used to cast doubt on global warming patterns, was itself wrong. The models, backed by data from weather balloons, have always been right.

Irony, says Michael Mann, professor emeritus of atmospheric science at Penn State University and most recent author of The new climate war, is that “climatologists have been dismissed as alarmists for the predictions we made, but the predictions, if any, have been shown to be too conservative and we are seeing even greater impacts than we expected.” “

The apparent imminent collapse of the system that drives the currents of the Atlantic Ocean is, he says, an example. “It’s something we thought we could happen, but it’s not only happening, it’s happening sooner than expected,” he notes. Manabe, he points out, was one of those who first raised the possibility decades ago. “It just underscores that what’s going on in climate science is the worst thing that can really happen to a climate modeler: to see your worst predictions come true. “

Modelers recognize that science is not perfect; Even today, uncertainties remain, and not just of a single order.

“Do we have all the physical processes in the model? And if we have them in there, are they represented correctly or not? Hayhoe asks rhetorically. “Then there is a second source of uncertainty called parametric uncertainty. In addition, she says, some processes take place at such small scales, for example among cloud particles, that they cannot be measured directly but must be inferred. obviously this adds some uncertainty. However, the greatest uncertainty, she says, does not lie in physics, but in our own collective behavior, and how prepared we are to allow global levels of greenhouse gases to rise.

“If we didn’t know that carbon emissions produce all of these impacts on us, that it’s not just a curiosity about the increase in global temperature but also our food, our water, our health, our homes, then we would not act. “, says Hayhoe.

“That’s why I do what I do, and that’s why role models are so important, because they show what’s going on right now that we’re responsible for, and what’s going to happen in the future. I look forward to the day when we can just use climate models to just understand this amazing planet, but right now those models are telling us, “Now is the time to act! And if we don’t, the consequences will be serious and dangerous.


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